Posted October 22, 2020 in Featured News

The black dotted lines denote significance at the, Running correlation coefficients between zonal‐averaged soil moisture and soil temperature (SM‐ST), soil moisture and precipitation (SM‐P), soil temperature and surface air temperature (ST‐T), and precipitation and surface air temperature (P–T) in the growing season (May–September) from 1979 to 2017 over land in the Northern Hemisphere. Currently, approximately 7-9 million observations are ingested at each time step. On the other hand, skills in reanalyses vary regionally, with good skills in the areas of homogeneous topography and landforms. The web service provides a flexible environment that allows users to tune the BQC parameters and upload ancillary rain data that help in finding the causes of the errors. We did not conduct an interpolation to zoom in from model grid cells to locate sites owing to inevitably introduced errors. To date, the database consists of measurements from 2,328 sites in 58 networks. The other adopted statistics of comparison include the Pearson correlation coefficient and ordinary least squares linear trend, root‐mean‐square error, and SD. Several identifiably spurious features exist including contradictory trends prior to (A) and during the satellite era (B), and inconsistencies with moisture convergence estimated from the mass-corrected atmospheric moisture budget (C). It is necessary (but not always possible) to verify trend estimates by comparing with independent data sets, e.g. Further comparisons between ERA‐Interim and ERA5 against observations (Figure S6) suggest that ERA5 outperforms its predecessor, ERA‐Interim, in terms of annual soil temperature ranges in part of the networks (e.g., Figure S6f,l,m,n), which are mainly located at high latitudes and high altitudes.

The correlation is much higher over those with homogenous terrain (e.g., USCRN, United States, China summer, and OZNET, Australia) than the others.

Meteor. Login to CDS (or Login to ADS); Copy a 2 line code, which shows a url and your own uid:API key details as followed: For CDS users, Go to this page and copy the 2 line code displayed in the black box in the "Install the CDS API key" section. These make effective use of land data and the assimilation of atmospheric observations (Fujiwara et al., 2017).

At the network scale, the five reanalyses show statistically significant correlations with observations, and the European Centre for Medium‐Range Weather Forecasts ERA5 shows higher skills than the other four products and a significant improvement over its predecessor. Bul. In addition, soil temperature products from the five reanalyses are also evaluated as a cross‐examination to ensure water–heat consistency. An ensemble application is likely helpful to highlight the consensus signals among the reanalyses at regional scales. In other words, the sites of correlations less than 0.8 are 6, 6, 5, 3, and 3 for JRA‐55, ERA‐Interim, ERA5, MERRA‐2, and CFSR, respectively (Figure S4). QR is a collection of statistical methods for estimating and making inferences about conditional quantile functions (Koenker and Bassett, 1978). Regarding quality control and data selection of soil moisture in this study, to efficiently use these valuable observations and expand their spatial coverage, we used all available observations with efficient records over more than 36 months from all 2,328 sites. Over the regions from western China to Mongolia and to the eastern former Soviet Union, the correlations of all five reanalyses against the observations decrease substantially compared with the other regions. Herein, SM and ST are the means of CFSR, ERA‐interim, ERA5, and MERRA‐2, P and T and the means of CPC and CRU, and the running‐window width is 10° latitude; *denotes significance at the p < 0:05, n = 468 level [Colour figure can be viewed at, Evolution of the linear trend in zonally averaged soil moisture (SM), precipitation (P), soil temperature (soil T) and air temperature (air T) from low to high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere in the growing season (May–September) for the period 1979–2017.

J. Appl. Low values appear at sites in mountainous areas in western China. However, as precipitation is in the form of snowfall, such as in high latitudes, the positive sign of correlations changes with the timing of snowmelt (Harms and Chanasyk, 1998). The surface air temperature increases by 1.2 K, and precipitation increased by 11.3 mm during 1979–2017; in contrast, the trends in the root‐layer soil are considerably flat, with rates of 0.8 K and 1.2 mm, respectively, during the same period.

Over North America, the co‐occurrence of increased precipitation but decreased soil moisture is observed in the northern parts. ERA5 combines multiple satellite and ground observations in the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS cycle 41r2) using a 4D-Var assimilation method. Learn about our remote access options, Key Laboratory of Regional Climate‐Environment for Temperate East Asia, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, E-mail address: The BQC was previously validated at 313 European and 732 Spanish stations finding multiple low-magnitude errors (e.g., shadows, soiling) not detected by classical QC methods. In situ soil moisture observations were taken from the international soil moisture network (ISMN, and the China Meteorological Administration (CMA, See Section 8 in Dee and Uppala (2008) for a stratospheric example of this problem. The correlation coefficients at site grid scales were estimated using raw data (with an annual cycle) because it remains a challenge for most land models to capture the accurate annual cycle of soil moisture in various layers. Moreover, the water exchange between surface reservoirs (e.g., river channels, lakes, wetlands, and glacier meltwater) and aquifers can substantially change soil moisture‐precipitation interactions (Chen and Hu, 2004; Tamea et al., 2009).

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