Like imperial princesses, living mother and main consort of reigning sultan also carried the title after their given names, for example, Hafsa Sultan, Suleiman's mother and first valide sultan, and Hürrem Sultan, Suleiman's chief consort and first haseki sultan. , Once Mehmed had created an Ottoman bureaucracy and transformed the empire from a frontier society to a centralized government, he took care to appoint officials who would help him implement his agenda. However, none ever reached Bosnia. Farsi, or Persian, was once counted among the great global sultans of language and culture.  He collected in his palace a library which included works in Greek, Persian and Latin. However, when he gave control to grand vizier Fazıl Mustafa Paşa, the latter turned the situation around. He was careful not to upset the balance in Anatolia. Despite winning a power struggle with his brother, Selim II was happy to entrust increasing amounts of power to others, and the elite Janissaries began to encroach on the Sultan. When Serbia refused these demands, the Ottoman army set out from Edirne towards Serbia in 1454. Meanwhile, groups of Tartars from the Crimean Khanate (the Ottomans' recent ally) were sent to attack Moldavia.
Hurrem Sultan knew that according to the rules of the harem, if Mustafa became sultan he would have all of her sons killed to prevent them from trying to overthrow him. Süleyman agreed to recognize John as a vassal king of Hungary, and in 1529, hoping to remove at one blow all further intervention by the Habsburgs, he laid siege to Vienna. In 1566, the 71-year-old Suleiman the Magnificent led his army on a final expedition against the Hapsburgs in Hungary. Demoralized, he returned to Negroponte with the remains of his army. As always, the Shah avoided open battle, but Suleiman marched into the Persian heartland and laid it to waste. Find out more. İbrahim II of Karaman was the ruler of Karaman, and during his last years, his sons began struggling for the throne.  They then proceeded to besiege the fortress of the Acrocorinth, which controlled the northwestern Peloponnese. Süleyman built strong fortresses to defend the places he took from the Christians and adorned the cities of the Islamic world (including Mecca, Damascus, and Baghdad) with mosques, bridges, aqueducts, and other public works. This left the path clear for Hurrem Sultan's first son Selim to come to the throne. : Apparently derived from the Arabic malik, this was the alternative native style of the sultans of the Kilwa Sultanate in Tanganyika (presently the continental part of Tanzania). Reader in the History of the Near and Middle East, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Shah Tahmasp finally agreed to sign a treaty with the Ottoman sultan, in which he got control of Tabriz in exchange for promising to cease border raids on Turkey and to permanently relinquish his claims to Baghdad and the rest of Mesopotamia.  But after some days he died, on 3 May 1481, at the age of forty-nine, and was buried in his türbe near the Fatih Mosque Complex. Having exhibited eccentricities and raised taxes, he was exposed and the Janissaries murdered him. Recent Examples on the Web But Sultan Haitham remains the paramount ruler of a country where criticism of the sultan remains a criminal offense punishable by as much as seven years in prison. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. At times, he assembled the Ulama, or learned Muslim teachers, and caused them to discuss theological problems in his presence. The two primary Balkan powers, Hungary and the Ottomans, maintained an enduring struggle to make Wallachia their own vassal.
Unfortunately, Selim had none of the good qualities of his half-brother and is remembered in history as "Selim the Drunkard.". They landed on June 26, 1522, and laid siege to the bastions full of 60,000 defenders representing various western European countries: England, Spain, Italy, Provence, and Germany. The death of John in 1540 and the prompt advance of Austrian forces once more into central Hungary drove Süleyman to modify profoundly the solution that he had imposed in the time of John.
He came to the throne at the age of six after his father was overthrown in a coup.
When Mehmed II was eleven years old he was sent to Amasya with his two lalas (advisors) to govern and thus gain experience, per the custom of Ottoman rulers before his time.
When Mehmed II ascended the throne again in 1451 he strengthened the Ottoman navy and made preparations to attack Constantinople. Even so, some ground was lost.  This centralization was possible and formalized through a kanunname, issued during 1477–1481, which for the first time listed the chief officials in the Ottoman government, their roles and responsibilities, salaries, protocol and punishments, as well as how they related to each other and the sultan. The last holdout was Salmeniko, in the Morea's northwest.
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