Among these precautions the first and chief is this: Side by side with these unions there should always be associations zealously engaged in imbuing and forming their members in the teaching of religion and morality so that they in turn may be able to permeate the unions with that good spirit which should direct them in all their activity. 25. When the Bolsheviks threatened to attack Warsaw in 1920, he refused to leave, thus showing great courage as well. 50. But to abuse the years of childhood and the limited strength of women is grossly wrong. He was ordained in 1879, became a professor at the seminary in Padua for eight years and then worked at the Ambrosian Library in Milan, eventually becoming its prefect. 3. St. Thomas, Contra Gentiles, III, 71; cf. For such sovereignty belongs in reality not to owners but to the public authority. 40.
Therefore, those in power should be sure that the more perfectly a graduated order is kept among the various associations, in observance of the principle of "subsidiary function," the stronger social authority and effectiveness will be the happier and more prosperous the condition of the State.
", and the persecution continued unabated). Encyclical, Immortale Dei, Nov. 1, 1885. As a consequence Pius issued the encyclical Non Abbiamo Bisogno in 1931, in which he criticized the idea of a totalitarian state and Mussolini's treatment of the Church. 111. For everyone knows that an excessive lowering of wages, or their increase beyond due measure, causes unemployment. 107. It will not be out of place here to render merited praise to all, who with a wise and useful purpose, have tried and tested various ways of adjusting the pay for work to family burdens in such a way that, as these increase, the former may be raised and indeed, if the contingency arises, there may be enough to meet extraordinary needs. On the contrary, not only did the obedient children of the Church hearken to it with marveling admiration and hail it with the greatest applause, but many also who were wandering far from the truth, from the unity of the faith, and nearly all who since then either in private study or in enacting legislation have concerned themselves with the social and economic question. Certainly there is the greatest need now of such valiant soldiers of Christ who will work with all their strength to keep the human family safe from the dire ruin into which it would be plunged were the teachings of the Gospel to be flouted, and that order of things permitted to prevail which tramples underfoot no less the laws of nature than those of God. To this indeed especially applies what Leo XIII says is "incontestible," namely, that "the wealth of nations originates from no other source than from the labor of workers. It is clearly the office of bishops, when they know that these associations are on account of circumstances necessary and are not dangerous to religion, to approve of Catholic workers joining them, keeping before their eyes, however, the principles and precautions laid down by Our Predecessor, Pius X of holy memory. And in this connection We must not pass over the unwarranted and unmerited appeal made by some to the Apostle when he said: "If any man will not work neither let him eat. Encyclical, On the Condition of Workers, 14. He seemed to be robust; his features, his expression reflected energy, but an energy which was calm, in repose, so to speak. As a result of the injection, the Pope supposedly died hours before delivering his historic attack on Mussolini and European fascism. It therefore cannot be bought and sold like a commodity. All these matters which we undertake to treat will fall under three main headings, and this entire Encyclical will be devoted to their development.
130.  That the rest of the family should also contribute to the common support, according to the capacity of each, is certainly right, as can be observed especially in the families of farmers, but also in the families of many craftsmen and small shopkeepers. Whatever was produced, whatever returns accrued, capital claimed for itself, hardly leaving to the worker enough to restore and renew his strength.
For at that time in many nations those at the helm of State, plainly imbued with Liberalism, were showing little favor to workers' associations of this type; nay, rather they openly opposed them, and while going out of their way to recognize similar organizations of other classes and show favor to them, they were with criminal injustice denying the natural right to form associations to those who needed it most to defend themselves from ill treatment at the hands of the powerful. These counsels and instructions of Leo XIII were put into effect differently in different places according to varied local conditions. After years of negotiation, in 1929, the Pope supervised the signing of the Lateran Treaties with the Italian government.
As the years went by, Hitler's totalitarian ambitions, much greater even than Mussolini's, were made clear.
The civil authority itself constitutes the syndicate as a juridical personality in such a manner as to confer on it simultaneously a certain monopoly-privilege, since only such a syndicate, when thus approved, can maintain the rights (according to the type of syndicate) of workers or employers, and since it alone can arrange for the placement of labor and conclude so-termed labor agreements.
The present state of affairs, Venerable Brethren, clearly indicates the way in which We ought to proceed. If this bond is lacking, the best of regulations come to naught, as we have learned by too frequent experience. And thus bodily labor, which Divine Providence decreed to be performed, even after original sin, for the good at once of man's body and soul, is being everywhere changed into an instrument of perversion; for dead matter comes forth from the factory ennobled, while men there are corrupted and degraded. 19. One section of Socialism has undergone almost the same change that the capitalistic economic system, as We have explained above, has undergone. Society, therefore, as Socialism conceives it, can on the one hand neither exist nor be thought of without an obviously excessive use of force; on the other hand, it fosters a liberty no less false, since there is no place in it for true social authority, which rests not on temporal and material advantages but descends from God alone, the Creator and last end of all things.. He paid lavish attention to the Byzantine rite churches that were in full communion with Rome and approved some discussions with Roman Catholics and Anglicans between 1921–1926 but was hostile to the Protestant Ecumenical movement. Encyclical, Ubi Arcano, Dec. 23, 1922.
Encyclical, Divini illius Magistri Dec 31 1929. In 1920, the government of Warsaw expelled him when he became the target of unfounded Polish national resentment. For Socialism, which could then be termed almost a single system and which maintained definite teachings reduced into one body of doctrine, has since then split chiefly into two sections, often opposing each other and even bitterly hostile, without either one however abandoning a position fundamentally contrary to Christian truth that was characteristic of Socialism. Yet it is not rash by any means to say that the whole scheme of social and economic life is now such as to put in the way of vast numbers of mankind most serious obstacles which prevent them from caring for the one thing necessary; namely, their eternal salvation . Yet before proceeding to explain these matters, that principle which Leo XIII so clearly established must be laid down at the outset here, namely, that there resides in Us the right and duty to pronounce with supreme authority upon social and economic matters. Public teaching: "Christ's Peace in Christ's Kingdom", Relations with Italy and the Lateran Treaties. But it does violate right order when capital hires workers, that is, the non-owning working class, with a view to and under such terms that it directs business and even the whole economic system according to its own will and advantage, scorning the human dignity of the workers, the social character of economic activity and social justice itself, and the common good. Yet since in the course of these same years, certain doubts have arisen concerning either the correct meaning of some parts of Leo's Encyclical or conclusions to be deduced therefrom, which doubts in turn have even among Catholics given rise to controversies that are not always peaceful; and since, furthermore, new needs and changed conditions of our age have made necessary a more precise application of Leo's teaching or even certain additions thereto, We most gladly seize this fitting occasion, in accord with Our Apostolic Office through which We are debtors to all, to answer, so far as in Us lies, these doubts and these demands of the present day. With respect to the founding of these societies, the Encyclical On the Condition of Workers most fittingly declared that "workers' associations ought to be so constituted and so governed as to furnish the most suitable and most convenient means to attain the object proposed, which consists in this, that the individual members of the association secure, so far as is possible, an increase in the goods of body, of soul, and of property," yet it is clear that "moral and religious perfection ought to be regarded as their principal goal, and that their social organization as such ought above all to be directed completely by this goal. Moreover, just as inhabitants of a town are wont to found associations with the widest diversity of purposes, which each is quite free to join or not, so those engaged in the same industry or profession will combine with one another into associations equally free for purposes connected in some manner with the pursuit of the calling itself. 11. " Yet when the State brings private ownership into harmony with the needs of the common good, it does not commit a hostile act against private owners but rather does them a friendly service; for it thereby effectively prevents the private possession of goods, which the Author of nature in His most wise providence ordained for the support of human life, from causing intolerable evils and thus rushing to its own destruction; it does not destroy private possessions, but safeguards them; and it does not weaken private property rights, but strengthens them. 142. Not since 1870 had this blessing been imparted from the balcony. Pius XI knew no compromise was possible. 83. The choice was between Cardinal Merry del Val and Cardinal Gasparri. Twelve concordats were signed in all in his reign with various types of governments, including some German state governments and with Austria. La Hierarchie catholique et le probleme social depuis l'Encyclique "Rerum Novarum," 1891-1931, pp.
He created 128 new archbishoprics and 113 Apostolic Prefectures throughout the world.
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